海湾地区无家可归

区域危机的区域观点

直到最近,无家可归还被认为是个别城市和县的问题. 对于像旧金山湾区这样的大都市来说, 它分为9个县和101个市, 这种方法无法满足区域内流动的无家可归人口的需要. 在这个报告中, a 区域 lens provides a new perspective on the homelessness crisis and offers new ways to address the problem.

海湾地区无家可归的人们
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美国地铁的无庇护挑战
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无家可归的人口统计资料
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无家可归的三个主要阶段
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无家可归者援助资金
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湾区极低收入住房许可持续赤字
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美国地铁的危机救助
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无家可归的主要原因
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执行概要

从各个方面来看, 旧金山湾区的无家可归危机是美国最严重的. The Bay Area has the third largest population of people experiencing homelessness (28,200) in the U.S., behind only New York City (76,500) and Los Angeles (55,200), according to Point-in-Time counts. The Bay Areaalso shelters a smaller proportion of its homeless (33 percent) than any metropolitan area in the U.S. 除了洛杉矶(25%),这使得危机在整个地区都非常明显. 湾区无家可归人口的绝对数量, combined with the region’s dearth of temporary shelter options and an insufficient supply of supportive housing, 使公众变得麻木,并谴责无家可归者过着艰苦的生活.

根据2019年湾区委员会的民意调查, residents of the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area rank homelessness behind only housing affordability (which is closely related to homelessness) and traffic congestion as the region’s biggest challenges, and the number of residents who believe homelessness is the region’s top problem has nearly tripled since 2015.

尽管在几个方面取得了进展,但危机的解决方案仍然遥不可及. Oakland Mayor Libby Schaaf and San Jose Mayor Sam Liccardo have pioneered the use of cabin communities and tiny homes, 分别,
在提供住所和服务的同时,让无家可归的社区保持完整. 在旧金山, Mayor London Breed launched the Rising Up initiative to provide housing subsidies and job placement services to more than 500 young people experiencing homelessness. Santa Clara County is recognized statewide for having developed the most transparent analyses of its existing homeless services. San Francisco has added large numbers of permanent supportive housing and rapid re-housing beds in the last five years, 而且人均住房支持度比美国其他任何地方都高.S. 城市.

私营部门也越来越多地参与进来. In 2018, Kaiser Permanente宣布拨款2亿美元来解决全国范围内的无家可归问题, 第一个项目是5美元.2 million acquisition of a 41-unit housing complex in East Oakland that will be rented to low- income families. 在圣克拉拉县, 思科已经承诺投入5000万美元建造更多住房, 提高技术能力, 扩大有前景的项目.

但在2011年到2017年之间, 旧金山湾区无家可归的人数在缓慢增长. 这一趋势发生时,该地区正在增加其无家可归支持资产的库存, 包括永久性支持性住房和快速住房计划. While jurisdictions have been successful in moving more homeless individuals and families into stable housing, 越来越多的人第一次无家可归.

旧金山湾区的住房长期短缺,尤其是低收入阶层, 最低收入阶层的工资增长有限, 短期住房和长期支助住房库存不足, 用于心理健康和戒毒服务的资源太少, 每一个都在导致当前危机的过程中发挥了作用. Complex funding streams tied to specific populations or uses also make a solution difficult to attain. Federal funding programs have prioritized permanent housing solutions as the most effective path to ending homelessness. 像这样, the inventory of temporary shelters and other emergency options for shelter in the region has fallen.

Faced with the combined shortage of deeply subsidized housing units and short-term shelters and transitional units, 该地区大部分无家可归的人每晚都无家可归. This dynamic has forced Bay Area cities and counties to grapple with homelessness on dual fronts. They must balance the immediate need to address the humanitarian crisis on their streets and in homeless encampments, while also focusing on the longer-term solution to homelessness: providing a home to every individual and family.

This balance is necessary because providing permanent housing to every person experiencing homelessness will take many years under the status quo. Given existing growth rates in the inflows into homelessness and assuming the region could sustain 2017’s annual increase of permanent supportive housing units (2,500), 在2037年之前,湾区将无法为每位无家可归的居民提供床位. But even that projection is optimistic given that Point-in-Time counts only reflect the homeless population on a single night. 实际的解决方案可能要远得多.

直到最近,无家可归还被认为是个别城市和县的问题. 对于像旧金山湾区这样的大都市来说, 它分为9个县和101个市, 这种方法无法满足区域内流动的无家可归人口的需要. 例如, 旧金山湾区无数无家可归者的数据集是不兼容的, 资产的规划和构建没有经过协调或优化. 一个社区的问题会蔓延到另一个社区. 杰夫·科西茨基说的, 旧金山无家可归者和支持性住房部门的主管, “只要这座城市被15人包围,旧金山的无家可归问题就永远不会得到解决,附近的县有一万无家可归的人.”

Solving the Bay Area’s homelessness crisis requires interventions across all stages of homelessness:

-Preventing individuals from becoming homeless is a cost effective way to keep the crisis from growing.

-Providing accommodation to the unsheltered homeless residents who currently have no place to go will alleviate the crisis on the region’s streets.

-Maximizing the number of units and housing programs dedicated to homeless individuals and families will provide a long-term solution.

Successfully offering interventions across this spectrum will require additional resources to expand the region’s inventory of support assets, 以及当地的政策改革, 区域, 和州一级来优化现有的项目. 在本报告中,我们使用区域数据支持以下三类政策建议:

阻止新的无家可归者流入,增加退出. Addressing homelessness at its earliest stages requires more effective diversion and prevention programs to keep individuals and families in their homes. An expanded housing supply available to extremely low-income households can be achieved through incentives targeted to units reserved for households earning between 0 and 30 percent of area median income. More work must be done across counties to understand and meet the existing and projected accommodation need.

推动更大的国家和地区合作. 例如, the state could play an active role in homelessness solutions by consolidating its efforts into a State Homeless Services Agency that can offer flexible funding for housing construction and services. The agency can condition funding on the creation of 区域 homelessness management plans that standardize definitions for monitoring 和跟踪 homelessness data and trends.

简化和改善无家可归者的服务. 私人和慈善资本可以以创新的方式部署, from testing the effectiveness of interventions with Pay for Success programs to using technology to streamline services. Regional task forces on funding and technology can identify gaps in existing funding sources and design platforms for intake, 护理, 和跟踪.